[collection name]: Bronze mask
In Ji'an area of Jiangxi Province, in the Song Dynasty, in addition to the Hutian kiln in Jingdezhen, there was also a famous kiln entrance, that is, the Jizhou kiln. Jizhou kiln in the Song Dynasty, centered on Yonghe town of Jizhou, flourished in the late Tang Dynasty, flourished in the two Song Dynasties and declined in the late Yuan Dynasty. The porcelain firing activity lasted until the late Ming Dynasty, with a history of about 600 years. In the prosperous period of Jizhou kiln in Yonghe town of Southern Song Dynasty, according to local documents, "three cities of bifangxiang Street", "seventy-two flower streets", there are thousands of rich brocade shops and more than ten thousand buildings.
Jizhou kiln is located in Yonghe town of Ji'an, Jiangxi Province. It was founded in the late Tang and Five Dynasties, flourished in the Southern Song Dynasty, declined in the late Yuan and early Ming Dynasty, and lasted for about 500 years. It is widely used in many kilns and integrates the great achievements of the South and North kilns. Among the kilns in the song and Yuan Dynasties, its products have the most abundant glaze colors, including the blue white glaze, yellow glaze and black glaze popular in the southern kiln system, as well as the milky white glaze, green glaze and brown glaze common in the northern kiln system. The fired porcelain is very rich in varieties, such as white glaze imitated Ding kiln, blue glaze imitated Longquan kiln, white glaze painting and black glaze can be compared with Cizhou kiln and Jianyang kiln products, especially black glaze, such as tortoiseshell glaze, leaf pattern, paper-cut pattern, gold painting, scratch pattern, black glaze Brown spot, white spot and blue spot.
The fish grain bowl of Jizhou kiln in Song Dynasty is in the shape of a bundle mouth, with a slanted abdominal wall and a short ring foot at the bottom. The outer wall is fully glazed, and the yellow brown glaze is randomly sprinkled into spots of different sizes, with natural opening. Because the homonym of "fish" is "Yu", it has the auspicious meaning of "Yu". To this day, when celebrating Chinese New Year's holidays and birthdays, Chinese people are still used to cooking a few fish, not to satisfy their appetite, but only to ask for a good taste of good luck.
Fish, like wild geese, can be used as a synonym for letters. The ancients wrote letters on silk and put them in the belly of fish. In this way, fish transmission is called "fish transmission element". In the Tang and Song Dynasties, all the dignitaries and officials wore the letter talismans made of gold called "fish talismans" to show that they were noble and humble. "Fish" and "Yu" are homophonic, so fish symbolizes wealth. "Like a fish in water" is used to describe the harmony, happiness and freedom of work and life.
The "wood leaf Tianmu" and "paper-cut and decal Tianmu" created and burned in Jizhou kiln of Song Dynasty have influenced today's ceramic industry. It is the first ceramic production area in China that directly applies folk paper-cut and Decal Art to porcelain decoration. The black glazed tea cups produced by it can be compared with the ones built at that time and play a very important role in the history of China's porcelain making.
[collection name]: Qing Dynasty porcelain figure vase
Shunye experienced 17 years. The porcelain of shunye Dynasty is similar to Chongzhen porcelain in terms of its texture, glaze color, shape, decoration and color painting. For example, the carcass is thick, the glaze is white and slightly cyan, and the glaze is thick. The shape is simple and thick, and the color painting is thick. It not only retains the characteristics of Ming porcelain, but also has the common characteristics of Kangxi porcelain. There are quite a few of the shunye tools with different depth and shallow yellow glaze. Some people regard it as an important feature of shunye.
Kangxi Dynasty experienced 61 years. The porcelain of Kangxi Dynasty is one of the key points of Jingdezhen porcelain in Qing Dynasty. Kangxi porcelain has a high level in shape, variety and glaze color painting. From the perspective of modeling, it's quite tough, and there are many magnificent people. Especially in the large and small pieces of work, the delicate and beautiful are not in the small number. The main feature of Kangxi official kiln porcelain lies in the color and glaze. In the early Kangxi period, this was the main idea. In the late Kangxi period, enamel and pastel were created and burned. There are many different styles of blue and white works in the early, middle and late period. Among them, "Emerald" and "Sapphire" are the best.
Yongzheng Dynasty experienced 13 years. Jingdezhen imperial kiln has a wide range of porcelain products, which ranks first in the quality of Qing porcelain. The reason lies in the appearance of excellent pottery officials like Tang Ying. Compared with Kangxi folk kiln, Yongzheng folk kiln has a much smaller heritage. But there are many well-made porcelain in Yongzheng kilns. Such as "Pastel", "fighting color", "blue and white", "color glaze", etc. There are outstanding works, some of which are similar to the official kilns. In Yongzheng Dynasty, the most precious official kiln enamel and color porcelain was rarely handed down. Pastel is the mainstream of this dynasty, and its production is also the crown of Qing porcelain. In fact, the production of fighting colors is better than that of pastels. The five colors and blue and white of Kangxi's fighting colors are made for playing. Yongzheng fighting color combines pastels with blue and white, which is more refined and delicate than the works of Kangxi Dynasty. Blue and white are not the masterpieces of official kilns of this dynasty, but they are produced in large quantities. Based on the imitation of Xuande blue and white, Xuande's blue and white verve is fully developed by using the methods of "dot", "dye" and "extension". The accuracy of the imitated works is the highest in all dynasties. The imitation of official, Ru and Jun in the color glaze created the precedent of the imitation of official kilns in the Qing Dynasty. For the first time, the famous products in the five famous kilns in the Song Dynasty were moved to this dynasty for careful imitation. Combined with the characteristics of this dynasty's production, the book was based on the official money of this dynasty. Yongzheng porcelain is the finest and most exquisite of Qing porcelain. Imitated Ge kiln was very popular in Yongzheng and Qianlong dynasties. Baige kiln (white glaze) Huangge kiln (yellow glaze) is more popular than Qingge kiln (blue gray glaze). Qingge kiln is relatively common. Yongzheng sacrificial red glaze in Qing Dynasty has the best quality and the highest price. In Kangxi, the sacrificial red glaze of Qianlong Dynasty was not as fine and clean as that of Yongzheng Dynasty, and it was rougher after Qianlong. In the red glaze, there are fewer heavenly sphere bottles, more jade pot and spring bottles, more gall bottles, etc. In Yongzheng Dynasty, the blue and white and the pastel were the main stream of firing. The main color is white. A few works appear colored. The blue and white flowers are mainly of Yongle and Xuande styles, including Kangxi style and late Ming style. The blue and white of folk kilns also have the above styles.
Qianlong Dynasty experienced 61 years. The Qianlong Dynasty was a period of porcelain making, and Jingdezhen reached its peak in Qing Dynasty. The official kiln porcelain of this dynasty is famous for its rich and colorful varieties and exquisite production. From the first year to the 20th year of Qianlong's reign, there were still Tang Ying and other outstanding supervisors and a large number of management talents and skilled craftsmen. In the early Qianlong period, the firing level of the official kilns was almost the same as that of the Yongzheng Dynasty. If there was no payment, it would be difficult to distinguish between the former and the latter. Qianlong 21 years. The quality of official kilns declined with the death of Tang Ying. Since then, the firing of Guanyao began to slide. The firing of Qianlong folk kiln porcelain and the firing of official kiln porcelain are basically synchronous development. Although the quality of the kiln porcelain can not be compared with that of the official kiln porcelain under strict supervision, there are some distinctive works emerging from time to time. Many works are indistinguishable from the official kiln or the folk kiln. In terms of varieties, in addition to the official kilns processing and firing enamel in the palace, other varieties are also imitated. At that time, there were so-called "official ancient porcelain" and "fake official ancient porcelain" and other varieties. In fact, it is the first-class porcelain fired in the folk kilns, and such works are continuously made in the local area. From the overall point of view, their production level is between the official and the civil kilns. It is a representative work of Qianlong kiln. The most important feature of Jingdezhen porcelain in Qianlong Dynasty is the collection of ancient culture and games. All kinds of ancient porcelain are imitated in this dynasty, and the quality is superb and lifelike. In Qianlong Dynasty, there were some kinds of porcelains of different ages. Such as blue and white, early Dynasty utensils like Yongzheng, mainly to imitate the works of Xuande Dianran Yunsan. The works made in the middle and late period have stable color and bright style. In pastel porcelain, the production of colored pastels is more than that of white pastels.
The Xuantong Dynasty experienced four years. Xuantong Dynasty is only one step away from modern times. In this dynasty, the number of products made by firing may be limited, and there are not many varieties. There are blue and white, five colors, pastels and various color glaze ware. From the perspective of heirloom products. Xuantong official kiln porcelain firing quality is high, regardless of variety, style, glaze color are similar to the previous dynasty. It is basically similar to Guangxu ware, but the production of similar works is finer than Guangxu ware. Xuantong folk kiln porcelain appears smaller in the past, which is not the lack of firing, only three years in this dynasty. However, the damage surface is not too large due to the short time. As a result, there must be many artifacts survived. Because many of them were not settled, they may be classified as Guangxu or the Republic of China in the appraisal. There was no special innovation in Xuantong Dynasty porcelain, but the new color porcelain, light crimson powder color, continued to develop after Guangxu became popular. The enamel colored porcelain that had been stopped burning for a long time was also made.
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