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近日 本公司征集精品推荐:宋代吉州窑鱼纹碗、清代瓷雕人物瓶

2020-04-01 18:40:43 来源:未知

近日 本公司征集精品推荐:宋代吉州窑鱼纹碗、清代瓷雕人物瓶

【藏品名称】:宋代吉州窑鱼纹碗

[collection name]: Bronze mask

【类别】:瓷器

Class: Porcelain

 

在我国江西吉安地区,宋代除景德镇湖田窑外,还有一座著名的窑口,那就是吉州窑。宋代的吉州窑,它以吉州永和镇为中心,兴于晚唐,盛于两宋,衰于元末,烧瓷活动持续到明代后期,前后约有600年历史。南宋永和镇吉州窑兴旺时期,据当地文献记载,"辟坊巷街三市","七十二条花街",锦绣铺有几千户,百尺层楼万余家。

In Ji'an area of Jiangxi Province, in the Song Dynasty, in addition to the Hutian kiln in Jingdezhen, there was also a famous kiln entrance, that is, the Jizhou kiln. Jizhou kiln in the Song Dynasty, centered on Yonghe town of Jizhou, flourished in the late Tang Dynasty, flourished in the two Song Dynasties and declined in the late Yuan Dynasty. The porcelain firing activity lasted until the late Ming Dynasty, with a history of about 600 years. In the prosperous period of Jizhou kiln in Yonghe town of Southern Song Dynasty, according to local documents, "three cities of bifangxiang Street", "seventy-two flower streets", there are thousands of rich brocade shops and more than ten thousand buildings.

吉州窑位于今江西吉安的永和镇,创烧于唐末五代,极盛于南宋,衰落于元末明初,延烧时间约五百年。它博采众窑之长,集南、北各大民窑之大成,在宋元时期的窑场中,其产品釉色最为丰富,既有南方窑系流行的青白釉、黄釉、黑釉,又烧北方窑系常见的乳白釉、绿釉、褐釉。所烧瓷器品种极为丰富,如白釉器仿定窑,青釉器仿龙泉窑,白釉彩绘及黑釉器可与磁州窑、建阳窑产品相媲美,其中尤以黑釉器变化多端,如玳瑁釉、树叶纹、剪纸花纹、描金彩绘、剔划花纹、黑釉褐斑、白斑及蓝斑等各具特色。

Jizhou kiln is located in Yonghe town of Ji'an, Jiangxi Province. It was founded in the late Tang and Five Dynasties, flourished in the Southern Song Dynasty, declined in the late Yuan and early Ming Dynasty, and lasted for about 500 years. It is widely used in many kilns and integrates the great achievements of the South and North kilns. Among the kilns in the song and Yuan Dynasties, its products have the most abundant glaze colors, including the blue white glaze, yellow glaze and black glaze popular in the southern kiln system, as well as the milky white glaze, green glaze and brown glaze common in the northern kiln system. The fired porcelain is very rich in varieties, such as white glaze imitated Ding kiln, blue glaze imitated Longquan kiln, white glaze painting and black glaze can be compared with Cizhou kiln and Jianyang kiln products, especially black glaze, such as tortoiseshell glaze, leaf pattern, paper-cut pattern, gold painting, scratch pattern, black glaze Brown spot, white spot and blue spot.

此藏品宋代吉州窑鱼纹碗,碗呈束口,腹壁较斜,底为矮圈足。外壁通体施釉,且用黄褐色釉随意点洒成大小不一的斑点,有自然开片。由于“鱼”谐音为“余”,因此素有“有余”的吉祥含义。直到今天,逢年过节、生日喜庆之时,国人仍习惯煮上几条鱼,不为满足口腹之欲,只为讨那一份吉祥如意的好口彩。

The fish grain bowl of Jizhou kiln in Song Dynasty is in the shape of a bundle mouth, with a slanted abdominal wall and a short ring foot at the bottom. The outer wall is fully glazed, and the yellow brown glaze is randomly sprinkled into spots of different sizes, with natural opening. Because the homonym of "fish" is "Yu", it has the auspicious meaning of "Yu". To this day, when celebrating Chinese New Year's holidays and birthdays, Chinese people are still used to cooking a few fish, not to satisfy their appetite, but only to ask for a good taste of good luck.

鱼跟雁一样,可作为书信的代名词。古人为秘传信息,以绢帛写信而装在鱼腹中。这样以鱼传信称为“鱼传尺素”。唐宋时,显贵达官身皆佩以金制作的信符称“鱼符”,以明贵贱。“鱼”与“余”谐音,所以鱼象征着富贵。“如鱼得水”用来描述工作和生活和谐美满、幸福、自在。

Fish, like wild geese, can be used as a synonym for letters. The ancients wrote letters on silk and put them in the belly of fish. In this way, fish transmission is called "fish transmission element". In the Tang and Song Dynasties, all the dignitaries and officials wore the letter talismans made of gold called "fish talismans" to show that they were noble and humble. "Fish" and "Yu" are homophonic, so fish symbolizes wealth. "Like a fish in water" is used to describe the harmony, happiness and freedom of work and life.

 

宋吉州窑创烧的“木叶天目”、“剪纸贴花天目”,至今影响当今陶瓷界,它是我国最早将民间剪纸贴花艺术直接运用到瓷器装饰上的陶瓷产区,所产黑釉茶盏可以与当时的建盏比美,在我国制瓷史上占有十分重要的地位。

The "wood leaf Tianmu" and "paper-cut and decal Tianmu" created and burned in Jizhou kiln of Song Dynasty have influenced today's ceramic industry. It is the first ceramic production area in China that directly applies folk paper-cut and Decal Art to porcelain decoration. The black glazed tea cups produced by it can be compared with the ones built at that time and play a very important role in the history of China's porcelain making.

 

 

【藏品名称】:清代瓷雕人物瓶

[collection name]: Qing Dynasty porcelain figure vase

【类别】:瓷器

Class: Porcelain

 

顺冶一朝经历17年。顺冶朝的瓷器胎质,釉色,造型,纹饰,彩绘等各方面与崇祯瓷器相似。如胎体厚重,釉色白中略泛青,釉层较肥厚。形制古朴浑厚,彩绘浓重。既保留了明瓷特征,又有康熙瓷常见特点。有相当一部分顺冶器口部施深浅不一的酱黄釉。有人将其看作顺冶器的重要特征。

Shunye experienced 17 years. The porcelain of shunye Dynasty is similar to Chongzhen porcelain in terms of its texture, glaze color, shape, decoration and color painting. For example, the carcass is thick, the glaze is white and slightly cyan, and the glaze is thick. The shape is simple and thick, and the color painting is thick. It not only retains the characteristics of Ming porcelain, but also has the common characteristics of Kangxi porcelain. There are quite a few of the shunye tools with different depth and shallow yellow glaze. Some people regard it as an important feature of shunye.

康熙一朝经历了61年。康熙朝的瓷器是清代景德镇瓷器的重点之一。无论从造型,品种,釉色彩绘诸方面,康熙制瓷都具有较高水平。从造型看,挺拨硬朗,雄奇魁伟者颇多。尤其是大件琢器,小件作品中,细巧秀丽者也不在小数。康熙官窑瓷的主要特色在于颜色釉方面。康熙早期以此为主。康熙晚期创烧了珐琅彩和粉彩。青花在早中晚期有许多不同风格的作品。其中以“翠毛色”和“宝石蓝”为最隹。

Kangxi Dynasty experienced 61 years. The porcelain of Kangxi Dynasty is one of the key points of Jingdezhen porcelain in Qing Dynasty. Kangxi porcelain has a high level in shape, variety and glaze color painting. From the perspective of modeling, it's quite tough, and there are many magnificent people. Especially in the large and small pieces of work, the delicate and beautiful are not in the small number. The main feature of Kangxi official kiln porcelain lies in the color and glaze. In the early Kangxi period, this was the main idea. In the late Kangxi period, enamel and pastel were created and burned. There are many different styles of blue and white works in the early, middle and late period. Among them, "Emerald" and "Sapphire" are the best.

 

雍正一朝经历13年。景德镇御窑厂烧造的官窑瓷器品种十分丰富,产品烧造质量名列清瓷之冠。原因在于本朝出现了唐英那样优秀陶官。与康熙民窑相比,雍正民窑的传世品要小得多。但雍正民窑中有许多制作精良的瓷器。如“粉彩”“斗彩”“青花”“颜色釉”等。均有突出的作品,有的与官窑相差无几。雍正朝最名贵官窑珐琅彩瓷传世稀少。粉彩是本朝的主流,制作也为清瓷之冠。而斗彩的制作实际上比粉彩更胜一筹。康熙斗彩的五彩与青花拼逗制作。雍正斗彩用粉彩与青花结合,比康熙朝的作品更显精雅细腻。青花不是本朝官窑的拿手作品,但烧造量很大。以仿宣德青花为蓝本,运用“点”“染”“拓”等绘彩方法,把宣德的青花神韵发挥得淋漓尽致。所仿作品乱真率为历朝之冠。而颜色釉中的仿官,仿汝,仿钧等釉色开创了清朝官窑仿制之先河,首次把宋代五大名窑中的名品搬到本朝,予以精心摹仿,并结合本朝制作特色,书以本朝官款。雍正瓷器是清瓷中最细洁,最精致的。仿哥窑在雍正,乾隆朝十分流行。白哥窑(釉色较白)黄哥窑(釉色较黄)比青哥窑(釉色呈青灰色)的更受欢迊。青哥窑较为普通。雍正祭红釉瓷在清代祭红釉中质量最好,价格也最高。康熙,乾隆朝的祭红釉没有雍正朝的细洁,乾隆以后的就更粗糙了。祭红釉中,天球瓶较少,玉壶春瓶,胆瓶等较多。雍正朝的青花,粉彩为大烧造主流。粉彩以白地为主。少量作品上出现色地。青花以晕散的永乐,宣德风格为主,也有康熙风格和仿明晚期风格等。民窑青花也有以上几种风格。

Yongzheng Dynasty experienced 13 years. Jingdezhen imperial kiln has a wide range of porcelain products, which ranks first in the quality of Qing porcelain. The reason lies in the appearance of excellent pottery officials like Tang Ying. Compared with Kangxi folk kiln, Yongzheng folk kiln has a much smaller heritage. But there are many well-made porcelain in Yongzheng kilns. Such as "Pastel", "fighting color", "blue and white", "color glaze", etc. There are outstanding works, some of which are similar to the official kilns. In Yongzheng Dynasty, the most precious official kiln enamel and color porcelain was rarely handed down. Pastel is the mainstream of this dynasty, and its production is also the crown of Qing porcelain. In fact, the production of fighting colors is better than that of pastels. The five colors and blue and white of Kangxi's fighting colors are made for playing. Yongzheng fighting color combines pastels with blue and white, which is more refined and delicate than the works of Kangxi Dynasty. Blue and white are not the masterpieces of official kilns of this dynasty, but they are produced in large quantities. Based on the imitation of Xuande blue and white, Xuande's blue and white verve is fully developed by using the methods of "dot", "dye" and "extension". The accuracy of the imitated works is the highest in all dynasties. The imitation of official, Ru and Jun in the color glaze created the precedent of the imitation of official kilns in the Qing Dynasty. For the first time, the famous products in the five famous kilns in the Song Dynasty were moved to this dynasty for careful imitation. Combined with the characteristics of this dynasty's production, the book was based on the official money of this dynasty. Yongzheng porcelain is the finest and most exquisite of Qing porcelain. Imitated Ge kiln was very popular in Yongzheng and Qianlong dynasties. Baige kiln (white glaze) Huangge kiln (yellow glaze) is more popular than Qingge kiln (blue gray glaze). Qingge kiln is relatively common. Yongzheng sacrificial red glaze in Qing Dynasty has the best quality and the highest price. In Kangxi, the sacrificial red glaze of Qianlong Dynasty was not as fine and clean as that of Yongzheng Dynasty, and it was rougher after Qianlong. In the red glaze, there are fewer heavenly sphere bottles, more jade pot and spring bottles, more gall bottles, etc. In Yongzheng Dynasty, the blue and white and the pastel were the main stream of firing. The main color is white. A few works appear colored. The blue and white flowers are mainly of Yongle and Xuande styles, including Kangxi style and late Ming style. The blue and white of folk kilns also have the above styles.

乾隆一朝经历61年。乾隆朝是瓷器烧造的集大成时期,也是清代景德镇达到极盛的时代。这一朝的官窑瓷以丰富,多彩的品种和制作精美而著称于世。由于乾隆元年至二十年,依然有唐英等卓越的督陶官和大批管理人才与能工巧匠。乾隆早期官窑瓷的烧造与雍正朝官窑的烧造水平几乎不相上下,如果不施款,很难区分前后。乾隆二十一年。唐英殁病,官窑质日益下降。从此官窑的烧造开始滑坡。乾隆民窑瓷的烧造与官窑瓷的烧造基本上是同步发展,尽管在质量上不能与严格监烧的官窑瓷相提并论,但有特色的作品时有涌现。不少作品不加细辩,难分是官窑还是民窑。从品种看,除了珐琅彩是官窑在宫廷加工烧制外,其佘品种也有仿制。当时有所谓的“官古瓷”和“假官古瓷”等品种。实即是民窑所烧的上等瓷器,这类作品不断在当地烧制。从整体看,他们的制作水平在官,民窑之间。是乾隆民窑的代表作品。乾隆朝景德镇瓷器最大的特点是集古代文玩的大成。凡古瓷中有的品种,本朝均有仿烧,而且质量高超而逼真。乾隆朝官窑瓷器中有些品种有时代早晚的区别。如青花,早朝器似雍正,以仿宣德点染晕散的作品为主。中晚期烧造的作品,色泽稳定,表现基调明快的风格。粉彩瓷中,色地粉彩器的制作多于白地粉彩器。

Qianlong Dynasty experienced 61 years. The Qianlong Dynasty was a period of porcelain making, and Jingdezhen reached its peak in Qing Dynasty. The official kiln porcelain of this dynasty is famous for its rich and colorful varieties and exquisite production. From the first year to the 20th year of Qianlong's reign, there were still Tang Ying and other outstanding supervisors and a large number of management talents and skilled craftsmen. In the early Qianlong period, the firing level of the official kilns was almost the same as that of the Yongzheng Dynasty. If there was no payment, it would be difficult to distinguish between the former and the latter. Qianlong 21 years. The quality of official kilns declined with the death of Tang Ying. Since then, the firing of Guanyao began to slide. The firing of Qianlong folk kiln porcelain and the firing of official kiln porcelain are basically synchronous development. Although the quality of the kiln porcelain can not be compared with that of the official kiln porcelain under strict supervision, there are some distinctive works emerging from time to time. Many works are indistinguishable from the official kiln or the folk kiln. In terms of varieties, in addition to the official kilns processing and firing enamel in the palace, other varieties are also imitated. At that time, there were so-called "official ancient porcelain" and "fake official ancient porcelain" and other varieties. In fact, it is the first-class porcelain fired in the folk kilns, and such works are continuously made in the local area. From the overall point of view, their production level is between the official and the civil kilns. It is a representative work of Qianlong kiln. The most important feature of Jingdezhen porcelain in Qianlong Dynasty is the collection of ancient culture and games. All kinds of ancient porcelain are imitated in this dynasty, and the quality is superb and lifelike. In Qianlong Dynasty, there were some kinds of porcelains of different ages. Such as blue and white, early Dynasty utensils like Yongzheng, mainly to imitate the works of Xuande Dianran Yunsan. The works made in the middle and late period have stable color and bright style. In pastel porcelain, the production of colored pastels is more than that of white pastels.

 

宣统一朝经历了4年。宣统朝距现代仅一步之遥。本朝烧造成量可能有限,品种也不多。主要有青花,五彩,粉彩及各颜色釉器等。从传世品看。宣统官窑瓷烧造质量均较高,不管品种,样式,釉彩皆仿前朝。与光绪器基本相似,但同类作品制作比光绪器精细。宣统民窑瓷器在传世中出现较小,这并不是烧造少,本朝烧造仅3年。但距今时间近,损毁面不致太大。因而必有许多器物存世,由于许多的瓷器不落款,所以在鉴定中可能被划归光绪或民国.宣统朝瓷器无特别创新,但彩瓷新品种浅绛粉彩在光绪流行后,此时仍继续发展。还烧造了停烧已久的珐琅彩瓷器。

The Xuantong Dynasty experienced four years. Xuantong Dynasty is only one step away from modern times. In this dynasty, the number of products made by firing may be limited, and there are not many varieties. There are blue and white, five colors, pastels and various color glaze ware. From the perspective of heirloom products. Xuantong official kiln porcelain firing quality is high, regardless of variety, style, glaze color are similar to the previous dynasty. It is basically similar to Guangxu ware, but the production of similar works is finer than Guangxu ware. Xuantong folk kiln porcelain appears smaller in the past, which is not the lack of firing, only three years in this dynasty. However, the damage surface is not too large due to the short time. As a result, there must be many artifacts survived. Because many of them were not settled, they may be classified as Guangxu or the Republic of China in the appraisal. There was no special innovation in Xuantong Dynasty porcelain, but the new color porcelain, light crimson powder color, continued to develop after Guangxu became popular. The enamel colored porcelain that had been stopped burning for a long time was also made.

 

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